Mae-Wan Ho and Dr. Mae-Wan Ho Low dose big effects Linear dose response relationships are routinely used in risk assessments of exposure to environmental hazards, and ionizing radiation is no exception. Typically, effects at high doses that kill cells, cause gene mutations and cancers, are back extrapolated to obtain an exposure limit at which the harm caused is considered miniscule or acceptable in view of the benefits gained. Ionizing radiation was widely believed to cause mutations by directly breaking the bonds of DNA molecules in the nucleus.
Reactions and Causes The Bystander Effect: The cause for social psychologist to begin to study how bystanders react during emergency situations, was due to Kitty Genovese being attacked and murdered in front of her Queens, New York apartment in Aronson et al.
The causes are significant to the explanation of the bystander effect and implore different elements in their explanation and relativity. The bystander effect contains different components related to the assistance of the bystanders helping behavior, as well as different social and cultural manifestations and their relevant causes.
Diffusion of Responsibility and Pluralistic Ignorance One of the main reasons why the bystander effect occurs is due to a social influence being present known as diffusion of responsibility Heroic Imagination Project, This phenomenon only requires one bystander and increases in larger groups and decreases in smaller groups.
Pluralistic Ignorance relates to helping behavior, as well as to pluralistic ignorance being present when bystanders think that others are interpreting the incident in a certain way, when indeed they are not Aronson et al.
This thought comes into notion as bystanders witness a situation, then base their reaction to the incident by gaging other onlookers responses to the incident.
If the bystander sees others reacting a certain way, then they too will be more apt to express their thought of the incident as not being too big of an issue, thus effecting their helping influences. Knowing How to Help When a bystander has decided to help, they must decide what kind of help is appropriate for the situation Aronson et al.
Rendering assistance also incorporates decision implementation factors that should be determined based upon the needs of the situation and if the bystander is qualified to provide proper assistance Aronson et al.
For example, if somebody collapses and a bystander does not know CPR, but decides to assist, they should probably assist by calling for emergency services and trying to find another bystander that can provide CPR.
Cultural Differences of Helping Behavior and The Bystander Effect Some social psychologist believe the phenomenon of the bystander has little impact and will lead to the same affects regardless of the culture.
However, some studies have analyzed that culture can play a significant role in determining if a bystander will or will not assist during certain situations.
|Kitty Genovese||This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract The bystander effect refers to the biological response of a cell resulting from an event in an adjacent or nearby cell.|
This differs from non-individualist societies, because non-individualist societies have been shown to contain a closer community bond, thus causing an increase in bystanders and their wiliness to help during a certain situations Pozzoli et al.
Conclusion The bystander effect is a unique phenomenon related to social psychology that contains many different components related to the influencing of helping behavior.
The bystander effect contains elements that ultimately provide plausible reasons as to why some choose to help or ignore certain situations.
Typically, ones decision to assist is impacted heavily by diffusion of responsibility and other aspects of knowing when and if to help. Other components, like cultural differences and social situations can also determine the outcome, based on group size and the totality of the circumstance.
Social Psychology 8th ed. Upper Saddle, New Jersey: The Positive Bystander Effect: Journal Of Social Psychology, 1 Bystander Effect and Diffusion of Responsibility.
How social group membership and group size can encourage as well as inhibit bystander intervention.
Social Development, 21 4 Bystander reactions to a violent theft:Bystander effects now abundantly confirmed. Since then, a wide range of bystander effects in cells not directly exposed to ionizing radiation have been found, which are the same as or similar to those in the cells that were exposed , including cell death and chromosomal instability.
What effect does appearance and group size have on bystander effects? The study into bystander effect (intervention) is an intriguing area of research which was brought about from the much documented murder of Kitty Genovese in The bystander effect refers to the biological response of a cell resulting from an event in an adjacent or nearby cell.
Such effects depend on intercellular communication . Bystander Effect: Reactions and Causes The bystander effect is an element of social psychology that implies that when the number of bystanders is increased in an emergency situation, the less likely any of the bystanders will aid, or assist in the situation (Aronson, Wilson, & Akert, ).
The radiation-induced bystander effect (bystander effect) is the phenomenon in which unirradiated cells exhibit irradiated effects as a result of signals received from nearby irradiated cells. In November , Hatsumi Nagasawa and John B. Little first reported this radiobiological phenomenon.
Another noun use of effect describes an appearance or impression that’s created on purpose, such as the dramatic effect of the bright red walls in your kitchen, or sound effects from your favorite grupobittia.com appears less often as a verb, but when it does, it means “produce.” Usually, it’s a noun.
It can even refer to your belongings, like when you get kicked out and your former.