The more towards the red end of spectrum you go, the hotter it gets. Darker and more intense colors seem heavier. Lighter colors seem, unsurprisingly, lighter.
Girls with lower levels of autonomy may be pressured into leaving school, and early marriage and childbearing while still adolescents, which is associated with higher risk of maternal death 6. Lack of access to financial and other resources may inhibit some women from being able to seek care, leading to delays in obstetric care.
Parents may preferentially seek care according to the gender of a sick-child, with girls less likely to receive care when needed. Men may experience difficulties in seeking care from facilities where opening hours are not conducive to their occupational commitments, or they may have limited access to interventions such as HIV testing and treatment which are frequently provided through the reproductive health services mainly used by women 7.
Gender norms exert a strong influence on the acceptability of some risk exposures strongly associated with NCD mortality rates 9.
For example, smoking tobacco is seen as a positive aspect of masculinity in some societies, but is frowned upon for women. Women are less likely to enter treatment programmes than men, for example due to lack of childcare options, or fear of losing custody of children Young men may take up gendered risky behaviours associated with norms and expectations of masculinity, including driving patterns.
Universal access to sexual and reproductive healthcare services Adolescent girls living in disaster-affected areas have high pregnancy rates, child marriage and gender-based violence In some countries women require male permission to access contraception Achieve universal health coverage Vulnerabilities based on ethnic origin and geographical location intersect with gender to limit access to health services Environmental pollution and contamination Occupation inside or outside the home impacts on rates and types of risk exposure.
For example, men are more likely to be exposed to air pollution from traffic, and women more likely to be exposed to cooking fumes. Promoting gender-responsive health systems to reduce health inequities Gender-responsive health systems are those which mainstream gender across all six building blocks of the health system: Delivering integrated, safe, effective, acceptable and evidence-based quality interventions while ensuring gender equity in access to all services — health promotion, preventive, curative, from the level of community-based to tertiary care.
Medical products and technologies: Ensuring gender equitable access to essential medicines, vaccines and technologies. Health and social workforce: Promoting gender-transformative policies and strategies that address gender biases and inequities in the health workforce and ensure decent work for all health and social care workers, while including gender equity in education, training, employment and career progression.
Achieving universal access to health services while ensuring gender equity in access to financial protection strategies.
Promoting gender budgeting and financial risk assessments. Supporting good health governance and gender mainstreamed public health policies and governance structures, promoting gender-sensitive strategies and supportive legislation in terms of being responsive, fair and efficient.
Promoting gender parity at leadership levels, and ensuring health systems are accountable to everyone. Women are also the main providers of unpaid care.
However, women are under-represented in management and decision-making positions in health systems.
Moreover, gender biases, physical and sexual violence and harassment remain important challenges for health and social workers. Every part of the WHO Secretariat shares responsibility for implementing gender mainstreaming approaches, including through the following: Country Support Package This package provides national health systems with tools to collect, analyse and report health data which is equity-oriented, human rights based, and gender-transformative, including through promoting the gender analysis of sex-disaggregated data.
Components of this package including Health Inequality Monitoring, Innov8 and Barrier Assessments have been piloted in several countries and work is now being scaled-up to help strengthen capacity in targeted countries. Gender mainstreaming for health managers: The Guides are structured to move from awareness to action throughout a 3 or 4 day workshop to reduce gender-based inequities in health.
Progress on the implementation of the Strategy for integrating gender analysis and actions into the work of WHO is reported every two years at the World Health Assembly.
References 1 UN Women. Social Science and Medicine. Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation. Seattle, University of Washington, European Journal of Public Health. Drug and Alcohol Dependence.
Am J Ind Med. Sex, gender and work segregation in the cultural industries. Hesmondhalgh D, Baker S. Gender, sexuality and male-dominated work: Work, Employment and Society.The effect of experiencing selfies on individuals' self-concept is examined.
• Taking and sharing a selfie increase individuals' level of social sensitivity.
The Kybalion: A Study of the Hermetic Philosophy of Ancient Egypt and Greece, by Three Initiates. "The Gender Effect offers a vivid portrayal of a world where poor girls are imagined to be the next billion-dollar solution to poverty.
Through a superb and incisive ethnography, Kathryn Moeller reveals the limits of corporatized development and the poverty of its imagination."—Michael Goldman, author of Imperial Nature: The World Bank and .
or given it a male bias. Overarching this is a general deficit of evidence on the exact impact of migration and remittances on poverty. I will look at some gendered aspects of the determinants, processes and impacts of migration. Some studies are only available to people in a certain age range or of a certain sex, so you can optionally fill in that information to be able to participate in those studies.
The Effects of Stereotype Threat and Self-Esteem on Task Performance. of Gender on Self-Esteem in China Name of Student School Abstract Six studies present varying results on the effect of gender on self-esteem.
Watkins & Yu () found gender to have little effect on self-esteem but much on self-concept and self-satisfaction, especially.