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This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are properly credited. More than million people live within the potential exposure range of a volcano.
The risk of catastrophic losses in future eruptions is significant given population growth, proximities of major cities to volcanoes, and the possibility of larger eruptions. The objectives of this review are to describe the impact of volcanoes on the human population, in terms of mortality, injury, and displacement and, to the extent possible, identify risk factors associated with these outcomes.
This is one of five reviews on the human impact of natural disasters. Data on the impact of volcanoes were compiled using two methods, a historical review of volcano events from to from multiple databases and a systematic literature review of publications ending in October Analysis included descriptive statistics and bivariate tests for associations between volcano mortality and characteristics using STATA There were a total of 91, deaths range: Inconsistent reporting suggests this is an underestimate, particularly in terms of numbers injured and affected.
The primary causes of mortality in recent volcanic eruptions were ash asphyxiation, thermal injuries from pyroclastic flow, and trauma.
Changes in land use practices and population growth provide a background for increasing risk; in conjunction with increasing urbanization in at risk areas, this poses a challenge for future volcano preparedness and mitigation efforts. Introduction From a global disaster perspective, volcanic eruptions result in relatively little mortality and displacement.
Approximatelyvolcano fatalities have been documented in the historic records, with an estimated 98, fatalities and 5. The eruption of Mount Pelee in Martinique resulted in 30, deaths, which is the highest number of fatalities in any 20th century volcanic event.
By comparison, floods were the leading cause of death in the 20th century, resulting in an estimated 6. The historical records show that the impact of volcanic eruptions on human populations is punctuated by relatively few catastrophic events with long intervals in between each event.
At present, there are an estimated active volcanoes 7 many of which are in locations experiencing rapid population growth. Major urban centers are commonly found within close proximity to volcanoes, including Naples and the capital cities of Mexico, Japan, and the Philippines 8.
Population density generally decreases as distance from the volcano increases, with the highest population densities in close proximity to volcanoes in Southeast Asia and Central America 6.
The risk of catastrophic loss from future eruptions is significant given population growth, proximities of major cities to volcanoes, and the possibility of larger eruptions 9 This is one of five reviews on the human impact of natural disasters, the others being cyclones, floods, tsunamis, and earthquakes.
Methods Data on the impact of volcanic events were compiled using two methods, a historical review of volcanic events and a systematic literature review for publications relating to the human impacts of volcanic eruptions with a focus on mortality, injury, and displacement.
Historical Event Review A historical database of significant volcanic eruptions between and was created from publicly available data. Multiple data sources were sought to ensure a complete listing of events and inclusion of both human and geophysical factors.
For an event to be included in the EM-DAT database, one or more of the following criteria must be fulfilled: Event lists from both databases were downloaded in July and August Event lists were then merged to create a complete listing of significant volcanic events between and A limitation of using the NOAA database is that events are reported if they are associated with an earthquake or tsunami, regardless of human impact.
Similarly, an emergency declaration is sufficient for inclusion in the EM-DAT database, irrespective of if human populations are actually affected.
The final list included events reported by EM-DAT and reported by NOAA; 71 events were reported by both sources yielding a total of volcanic events affecting populations between and In order to examine country- and event-specific characteristics associated with low and high levels of volcano mortality, deaths were categorized as follows: All analyses were performed using Stata Statistical Software, Version One search was done for all the five natural hazards described in this set of papers.
This paper describes the results for cyclones. Key words used to search for natural hazards included natural hazard snatural disaster svolcano esvolcanic, volcanic eruption, seismic event, earthquake scyclone styphoon shurricane stropical storm sflood sflooding, mudslide stsunami sand tidal wave s.
Results from the four databases were combined and duplicates were excluded to yield a total of 9, articles.There are many discussions in the geophysics literature of the types and nature of volcanic eruptive behavior. In the social science literature there are discussions of public education strategies for hazards, controlling access to dangerous locations and evacuation systems.
Contamination of water supplies by volcanic ashfall: A literature review and simple impact modelling. which are known to be highly acidic due to the interaction of volcanic ash in eruption plumes with aerosols such as hydrochloric and sulphuric acids.
Related Literature About Volcanic Eruption The Effect of Volcanic Eruptions on Climate Introduction Recently there has been a lot of research in the field of climate change, and much of it is focused on anthropogenic affects on climate. Related Literature About Volcanic Eruption The Effect of Volcanic Eruptions on Climate Introduction Recently there has been a lot of research in the field of climate change, and much of it is focused on anthropogenic affects on climate.
Hudak, University of Wisconsin Oshkosh, AA lava: A Hawaiian term for lava that has a rough, jagged, A part of a rock body that can be differentiated from another part of a related rock body by textural or compositional variations.
Volcanic Eruption of at . Aug 25, · The deep volcanic crater, top, was produced by the eruption of Mount Tambora in Indonesia in April - the most powerful volcanic blast in recorded history.