Religion[ edit ] With approximately 27 million worldwide[ citation needed ] Sikhs are adherents to the fifth-largest religion in the world, Sikhism, making up 0. Migrations of Sikhs during the era of the Gurus were limited to the boundaries of modern-day India and Pakistanand in particular restricted to the Sikh tribal heartland of the Punjab Region.
The development of the Sikh Confederacy and the development of the Sikh Empire —led to Sikhs migrating to conquered parts of their empire such as Ladakh and Peshawar.
However these migrations were limited, transitory and unsustained, depending on the Empire's fluctuating boundaries.
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During the time of the Sikh Empirethere was a net cultural immigration, with Napoleonic and British influences vying for the 'ear' of the then Sikh Maharajah Ranjit Singh. Annexation of the Punjab[ edit ] Maharajah Duleep Singhthe first and most famous member of the Sikh diaspora Sikh migration from the Punjab began in earnest in the Punjab university lahore thesis half of the 19th century when the British Raj had successfully completed its annexation of the Punjab.
The pivotal action in the British annexation was the lifetime exile of the then eleven-year-old Maharaja, Duleep Singhthus making Singh the first although unwilling member of the Sikh diaspora. Although a largely secular figure who did little for the Sikh body politic, Axel  argues that Duleep Singh's exile has had a major impact on the Sikh diaspora psyche.
Axel  says that Duleep Singh is the archetypal 'tragic hero' figure in Sikh culture, "a King without a Kingdom, a Sikh separated from his people"; the contrast between Duleep Singh and his strong ruler father, Maharaja Ranjit Singh Ji, makes Duleep 's exile even more 'galling' for the Sikhs and results in a strong sense of communal injustice, which is a later trait in the diaspora's development.
Sikhs founded the city of Rawalpindi. Lahorethe capital of undivided Punjab, had thriving Sikh neighborhoods. The era of peace and prosperity turned into a nightmare in The partition of Punjab between India and Pakistan was a seminal tragedy for Sikhs.
Millions of Sikhs fled to freedom and safety in East Punjab in India.
Such intense violence in East Punjab had caused many villages and cities to go through construction. In s and beyond many Sikhs migrated to the UK and North America in search of economic opportunities. Some of the Sikhs who had settled in eastern Africa were expelled by Ugandan leader Idi Amin in Subsequently, the main 'push' factor for Sikh migration has been economic with significant Sikh communities now being found in PhilippinesCanada, the United Kingdom, the United States, MalaysiaEast AfricaAustralia and Thailand.
Agitation for a homeland[ edit ] Sikh Flag- The Nishan Sahib Axel  argues that the Sikh diaspora community, having established themselves in foreign countries, begin to fetishize the past and nurture idealized designs for their 'lost and imaginary' Sikh empire.
This comes into fruition to a certain degree with the establishment of Indian Punjab in as a Sikh majority state. However, Tatla  argues that the marginalization and sense of grievance that Indian Sikhs were facing due to Indira Gandhi 's heavy-handed tactics were amplified in the Sikh diaspora.
Subsequently, the Sikh diaspora, especially in South Vancouver, Canada  and the UK become willing suppliers of logistical and financial support when the organic agitation for a separate Sikh nation, Khalistanbegan in the late s.
The actions taken by the Indian government to counter the Sikh separatist movement, via 's Operation Blue Starhad a seismic effect on the Sikh diaspora.
Axel  argues that the desecration of the Sikh's holiest shrine, Harimandir Sahiband the following Sikh Genocide in which thousands of Sikhs were massacred; led to a resurgence in Sikh religiosity and a strengthening of ties with their Sikh brethren in Punjab.
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Diaspora Sikhs felt betrayed by India, and the events of defined their Sikhism and underlined a distinct commonality shared with other diaspora Sikhs.
In Dr Jagit Singh Chohan, an ex-minister in a short-lived government of Akali dissidents, saw an alignment of like-minded Sikhs. Chohan placed a half-page advertisement in The New York Times of 12 Octobermaking several claims about Punjab as a Sikh homeland.
However, Chohan won little sympathy from ordinary Sikhs  Sikhs in London protest against Indian government actions Tatla summarises the change in Sikh diaspora community leaders post a being a "painful transition from a self-confident community with haughty discourse, to the self-defensive strategies of a vulnerable minority".
Axel  argues that the history of the Sikh diaspora, its psyche of grievance and the violence inflicted on it, means that the notion of the Sikh diaspora as a community today inevitably converges on the notion of Khalistan.
In addition to this, Axel points out the 'nightmare' scenario facing the Sikh diaspora; the Indian state 'demands' the 'Unity-in-Diversity' model of 'rashtriya ekta' national integration which Axel contends is signified by "the denial of difference through surrender, assimilation and integration".
Since the formation of the Khalsa, the Sikhs have defined themselves though their 'separateness' and have differentiated themselves philosophically and physically from other Indian religious communities, thus the process of 'rashtriya ekta' is a threat to Sikhi itself.
Any 'weakening' or 'dilution' Sikhi in the Punjab, is doubly painful for the Sikh diaspora for it means a corresponding weakness in Khalistan, which, both real and imaginary, epitomizes the Sikh diasporic place today. Sikh identity today[ edit ] Whilst the rate of Sikh migration from the Punjab has remained high, traditional patterns of Sikh migration that favored English speaking countries, particularly the United Kingdom, has changed in the past decade due to factors such as stricter immigration procedures.
Moliner  states that as a consequence of the 'fact' that Sikh migration to the UK had "become virtually impossible since the late s", Sikh migration patterns altered to continental Europe. Italy has now emerged as a fast-growing area for Sikh migration,  with Reggio Emilia and the Vicenza province being areas of significant Sikh population clusters.
There have been numerous hate crimes targeted at Sikhs. France banned turban-wearing Sikh students from publicly funded schools as part of a broader policy originally intended to restrict Muslim head-scarves.grupobittia.com View all educational boards Academic Results online View latest educational results of class 5th / Primary, 8th / Middle, 9th, 10th / Matric / SSC.
PU board approves PhD thesis topics. Lahore, Feb 14, The Punjab University's Advance Studies and Research Board (AS&RB) Wednesday approved research thesis topics of PhD scholars of various departments and institutes of the varsity. salam I was a permanent employee of bps 14 in agriculture department GB government in after 10 years of my service I appeared a DSC as fresh candidate and fortunately appointed in bps 17 on temporary basis in another federal govt organization, the competent authority.
of parent department permitted me to join the new job by keeping 5 years lien period against permanent post. Lahore Photos. Editor’s Note: Rare black & white photos of Lahore dating back to s are in the last portion of this post.
Brief History of Lahore: Lahore, known as the City of Gardens and Colleges, is the capital of Punjab and the second largest city of grupobittia.com is the cultural heart of Pakistan and hosts most of the arts, festivals, film-making, music and intelligentsia of the country.
Lahore Photos. Editor’s Note: Rare black & white photos of Lahore dating back to s are in the last portion of this post. Brief History of Lahore: Lahore, known as the City of Gardens and Colleges, is the capital of Punjab and the second largest city of grupobittia.com is the cultural heart of Pakistan and hosts most of the arts, festivals, film-making, music and intelligentsia of the country.
The Sikh diaspora is the modern Punjabi Sikh migration from the traditional area of the Punjab region.
Sikhism is (de facto) an ethnic religion, the Punjab region being the historic homeland of Sikhism. The Sikh diaspora is largely a subset of the Punjabi diaspora.. The starting point of the diaspora is commonly accepted to have begun after the fall of the Sikh Empire in and the Empire's.